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S

Term Definition
Scavenger

Collects excess particles of a metabolite or toxin.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disordered thinking and behavior.

Seizure, Atonic

A generalized seizure characterized by a sudden loss of normal muscle tone during which the affected person will fall down or involuntarily drop his or her head, called a drop attack. The seizures are brief - usually less than fifteen seconds. They begin in childhood

Seizure, Atypical absence

A generalized seizure typically affecting children that can cause a partial or complete loss of consciousness and is characterized by a staring spell that usually lasts 5-30 seconds.

Seizure, Clonic

A generalized seizure characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the arms and legs, sometimes on both sides of the body.

Seizure, Febrile

A convulsion seen in children that is triggered by a significant rise in body temperature accompanying fever without any neurological cause.

Seizure, Myoclonic

A generalized seizure characterized by jerking movements of a muscle or muscle group without loss of consciousness. Usually occur at the same time on both sides of the body.

Seizure, secondarily generalized

Seizures that start as a partial seizure (in one limited area of the brain) but then (sometimes so quickly that the partial seizure is hardly noticed) the spread throughout the brain, becoming "generalized."

Seizure, simple partial

Seizures which affect only a small region of the brain with no loss of consciousness.

Seizures

A temporary change in brain performance due to abnormal electrical activity of a specific group of cells in the brain that either present with sudden muscle contractions, decreased level of consciousness, and several other symptoms.

Seizures, Complex partial (focal)

A focal seizure in which abnormal electrical disturbances remain in a limited area of the brain, affecting behavior and awareness or memory of events before, during, and immediately after the seizure.

Seizures, tonic

Brief generalized seizures, usually less than 60 seconds, consisting of sudden onset of increased tone in extensor muscles.

Seizures, tonic-clonic

A generalized seizure involving the entire body (grand mal seizure). Seizures usually involve muscle rigidity, violent muscle contractions and loss of consciousness. Also called tonic-clonic epilepsy.

Self-select

To determine on one

Sensory Processing Disorder: Difficulty interpreting sensory input, like sounds, touch and movement resulting in exaggerated responses to these stimuli.
Sepsis, neonatal

A whole-body, inflammatory immune system response to a blood infection that occurs in a newborn infant usually within 72 hours of birth, usually in premature neonates. The normal processes in the blood are overwhelmed, resulting in small blood clots, blocking blood flow to vital organs, which can lead to organ failure and septic shock if left untreated.

Serum or plasma ammonia level

Amount of ammonia concentration present in blood or plasma, used to monitor ammonia levels in urea cycle disorder and propionic acidemia.

Sleep apnea

A condition in which pauses in breathing (an apnea episode) occur during sleep because the airway has become narrowed, blocked, or floppy.

Sodium benzoate

A compound used in urea cycle disorders to create an alternative pathway for removal of ammonia by conjugating with glycine to form hippurate.

Sodium phenylacetate

Ammonia scavenging compound, used in combination with sodium benzoate in intravenous form to treat critically elevated ammonia levels. The trade name is Ammonul.

Sodium phenylbutyrate

Ammonia scavenging drug used in treatment of urea cycle disorders. The trade name is Buphenyl. Removes ammonia by conjugating to phenylacetylglutamine, which is then excreted from the body.

Spasticity

Continuous contraction of certain muscles.

Stroke

An interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain. Immediate attention is needed as brain cells begin to die. Long-term effects of a stroke include paralysis, headaches and vision problems.

Substrate

A substance acted on and changed by an enzyme in any chemical reaction.

Supplementation

A substance added to counteract a deficiency or potential deficiency. Supplements are added to complete a thing, to make up for a deficiency or to extend or strengthen the whole; for example, calcium supplements are taken by people who may not be getting enough calcium in their diet.

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