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Term Definition

A personality trait characterized by the inclination of an individual to initiate behavior without adequate forethought as to the consequences of their actions, referred to as "acting on the spur of the moment." While it a normal behavior which contributes to adaptive functioning, abnormal patterns of impulsivity may be related to neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, or neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD, substance abuse disorders, and bipolar disorder.

In vivo

Occurring in a living organism. In vivo experiments are therefore performed on living organisms.

Inborn error of metabolism

Genetic disorders in which an inherited defect (usually a missing or inadequate enzyme) results in an abnormality in the body

Intellectual Development

The ability to gain knowledge.

Intellectual disability

A disability (sometimes referred to as cognitive disabilities or mental retardation) in which a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. Children with intellectual disabilities learn and develop more slowly than a typical child and may take longer to speak, walk, and learn to take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating.


Within the cell, produces energy for the cell.

Intravenous (IV): Delivered into the body through a needle or tube inserted into a vein, which allows immediate access to the blood supply.

A branched chain essential amino acid found in proteins. One of the restricted amino acids for patients with propionic acidemia.

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