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Term Definition
Biochemical Pathway

Systems in the body that process molecules for useful purposes.


A vitamin Cofactor for carboxylase enzymes. Essential for metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Bipolar disease/manic depression

A psychiatric disorder marked by mood swings that range from of the lows of depression to the highs of mania, seen at the same time in some cases. Depression brings feelings of sadness, hopelessness and loss of interest in the activities that once brought pleasure. Mania brings a feeing of euphoria and energy, a time of great productivity. Mood shifts may only occur only a few times a year, or as often as several times a day. Sometimes referred to as manic-depressive disorder.

Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA)

L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine are essential amino acids because humans cannot survive unless they are present in the diet. They are easily converted to ATP, critical to energy and muscle metabolism. They aid in hemoglobin formation, which helps to stabilize blood sugar and lower elevated blood sugar levels. L-Leucine decreases blood sugar and boosts tissue healing, including bone. L-isoleucine is essential for hemoglobin formation and regulates blood sugar and energy levels. L-Valine acts as a natural stimulant and is involved in tissue regeneration and nitrogen balance. In urea cycle disorders, low levels of BCAA can trigger hyperammonemia.

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